Study the Effects of replacement different percentages of pomegranate peels in the manufacture of cookies and its impact on the chemical, physical, sensory properties and antioxidant activity of the produced cookies
The experiment was conducted in the laboratories of the Food Science Department - College of Agriculture - Tikrit University, the study aimed to produce cookies by replacing the wheat flour with the pomegranate peels by 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5%, and study its impact on the chemical, physical, sensory properties and antioxidant activity of the produced cookies. The results of replacing cookies with different percentages of pomegranate peels showed a change in the chemical estimates of its components, as the proportions of moisture, ash, fat, protein, fiber and carbohydrates for the control sample (TO) (4.13, 0.58, 22.64, 6.89, 0.54, 65.22) %, and (3.56, 0.61, 22.12, 6.84, 0.80, 66.07) % for the sample (T1) replaced by 1.5% pomegranate peel, and (3.48, 0.65, 21.97, 6.78, 0.95, 66.17) % for the sample (T2) replaced with 3% pomegranate peels, And (3.36, 0.69, 21.79, 6.71, 1.18, 66.27)% for the sample (T3) replaced with 4.5% pomegranate peels. The effect of substitution on the physical properties of the cookie product, it showed a significant decrease in the diameter of the additive sample of 1.5, 3, and 4.5% of the pomegranate peel, reaching 4.71, 4.66 and 4.56 cm, respectively, and a decreased in the thickness with increasing the concentration, as the thickness reached (1.41, 1.36, 1.35, 1.33) cm for the parameters T0, T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while, the diffusion ratio was 3.46, 3.45 and 3.43 cm for T1, T2, and T3 parameters, respectively. The results of estimation of phenols indicated that the concentration of total phenols in the cookies product was 74.92 mg/100 g, 78.89 mg / 100 g, 83.39 mg/100 g, and 88.85 mg/100 g for samples (T0, T1, T2, T3), respectively, while the percentage for free radical inhibiting activity in cookies samples with different concentrations of pomegranate peels added was 21.20% in the control group (T0) and in the treatments T1, T2 and T3 (24.07, 25.18 and 27.12), respectively. The results of the sensory evaluation of the cookie product under study showed, transaction T1 outperformed the rest of the transactions in overall product acceptance, the results showed that there were no significant differences (P≤0.05) in the taste quality between the treatments (T0, T1, T2) and also between the two treatments (T2, T3), The results also showed that there were no significant differences between the treatments (T0, T1) and the coefficients (T1, T2), and between the treatments (T2, T3) in the color, while the results showed that there were no significant differences in the parameters T0, T1, T2 and T3 for the crispiness, also, the results showed of the sensory evaluation that were no significant differences (P≤0.05) between all treatments for the characteristics of texture and overall acceptability.