Effect of plant population and cultivars on growth, yield and its component of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under the rain-fed condition in Kurdistan- Iraq
This experiment was conducted at the research field of College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences-University of Sulaimani at Bakrajo, Sulaimani, Iraq during the growing season of 2016-2017 to assess the effect of three-row spaces (10, 15 and 20) cm and three plant densities (160, 200 and 240) kg/ha with their interaction on grain yield and yield components of two bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99 and Aras). For each trait, ranges of statistical analysis were performed, including a Factorial Experiment in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with three replications. At a 5% significance level, mean comparisons were done using the least significant difference (L.S.D). Plant height, number of spikes/m2, spike length, spike weight, number of spikelets/spike, number of grain/spike, the weight of grain/spike, 1000-grain weight, harvest index, biological yield, and grain yield were all calculated as part of grain yield. The results show that row spaces have a significant impact on the studied characters, with 10 cm producing the highest values for all characteristics except the number of spikes/m2, spike length, and harvest index, which were provided by 15 cm. With the exception of the number of spikes/m2, spike length, and biological yields, the impact of varieties on agronomic traits was significant; the Adana-99 variety provided maximum values for all of the studied characters. With the exception of spike length, where 200kg/ha density had the ultimate value, plant density had a major impact on the studied characters, with 160kg/ha density producing maximum values for almost all of the characters, and 240kg/ha density producing maximum values for the number of spikes/m2 and biological yield. Based on our findings, the Adana-99 cultivar should be sown at a seed rate of 160 kg/ha with a 10 cm inter-row spacing in Bakrajo, Sulaimani Region under guaranteed rained conditions.