Optical, morphological and Physico-chemical Properties For some soils in central and northern Iraq, using a digital camera
The study was conducted in three selected sites representing the soils of three governorates of central and northern Iraq (Salah al-Din, Kirkuk, and Erbil), to determine the effect of morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of some soil genetic horizons on their spectral reflectivity using digital camera as well as Knowing the degree of soil development and classification according to the Quantitative (American) system for classifying soils, Three pedons representing these soils were excavated, the horizons were morphologically diagnosed and samples were obtained from each horizon of each pedon from the soils of the study sites to conduct some laboratory tests for the physical and chemical properties. Pictures were taken that combine dry and wet samples; In order to calculate the spectral reflectivity and RGB values using ERDAS software. The results revealed a heterogeneity in the morphological characteristics represented by the dominant color class of each pedon, with the diagnosis of the morphological features of each of the surface diagnostic horizon Ochric with the subsurface diagnostic horizons Gypsic, Calcic and Argillic. The results also found that the spectral reflectivity values of RGB were high in dry soil and decreased in the wet condition, and the lowest value of the spectral reflectivity was for the surface horizons, as it reached 44.87% on the surface horizon of the second pedon, and the highest value of the reflectivity was on the horizon Cky1 of the pedon 1, where its ratio is 72.15% ,and the reflectivity values of the red color at the red band were high in pedon Erbil as a result of the effect of iron oxides. Show the spectral and hematological differences represented by the index of brightness (value), hue and index of iron oxides The results also found that the most influential traits in these spectral indices are the dominant soil color as well as the texture of the soil represented by the content of silt and clay with moisture content, as well as the effect of the content of organic matter, iron oxides, gypsum and lime content on the surface and subsurface diagnostic horizons.