Types of papers:
- Original papers (Regular Papers) should report the results of original research.
The material should not have been published previously elsewhere, except in a preliminary form.
- Reviews should cover a part of the subject of active current interest. They may be submitted or
- A Short Communication is a concise, but complete, description of a limited investigation, which willnot be included in a later paper. Short Communications should be as completely documented, bothby reference to the literature and description of the experimental procedures employed, as a regular They should not occupy more than 6 printed pages (about 12 manuscript pages, includingfigures, etc.).
- Letter to the Editor: correspondence.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address.
• Full postal address.
All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords.
• All figures (include relevant captions).
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes).
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided.
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print.
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'.
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa.
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources
(including the Internet).
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing
interests to declare.
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed.
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their
manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any
addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only
before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).
Full Online Submission
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.
All submissions must be accompanied by a cover letter detailing what you are submitting. Please indicate:
- The author to whom we should address our correspondence (in the event of multiple authors, a single 'Corresponding Author' must be named).
- A contact address, telephone/fax numbers and e-mail address.
- It is also useful to provide the Editor-in-Chief with any information that will support your submission (e.g. original or confirmatory data, relevance, topicality).
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text
should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts. Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section. Do not use non-standard or case-specific abbreviations in the Conclusions. This section should be able to 'stand alone' without requiring readers to refer to the text of the manuscript for explanations or definitions.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
- Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid
abbreviations and formulae where possible.
- Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s)
of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between
parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation
addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
- Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
- Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly (not exceeding 300
words!) the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Do not choose words that appear already in the title of your manuscript. Choose additional words to enhance the visibility of your work.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in
line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small
fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
List of Symbols
In manuscripts with a large number of mathematical symbols, a list of the symbols and their definitions may be provided in a box within the manuscript. Generally, the box should be placed just before the first appearance of the mathematical symbols. All symbols and units must conform with SI recommendations.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. In general, do not use abbreviations in the titles of figures or in the legends or in descriptive markings. If abbreviations are unavoidable in some cases, they must be defined in notes directly beneath each figure. It is essential that all figures can 'stand alone' without requiring a reader to refer to the text of the manuscript for explanation or definitions.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. In general, do not use abbreviations in the titles of tables or in the row and column headings. If abbreviations are unavoidable in some cases, they must be defined in notes directly beneath each table. It is essential that all tables can ‘stand alone’ without requiring a reader to refer to the text of the manuscript for explanations or definitions.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice
versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
- Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of
2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
- Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first
alphabetically, then chronologically.
Examples: 'as demonstrated (Ahmed, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Ahmed and Ali, 1999). Black et al. (2010) have recently shown ....'
List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication: Imhoff, S., da Silva, A.P., Fallow, D., 2004. Susceptibility to compaction, load support capacity and soil compressibility of Hapludox. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68, 17–24.
Reference to a book:
Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., (2000). The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
Cancer Research UK, (1975). Cancer statistics reports for the UK. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/ aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/ (accessed 13 March 2003).
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T., (2015). Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. https://doi.org/10.17632/ xwj98nb39r.1.
Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive two paper offprints. For an extra charge (5000 ID per offprint copy), paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via journal co-editor.
The publication fee of a research in this journal is 75000 ID, and an additional 5000 ID must be paid for each additional page for research with more than 15 pages.